|Dr. Harold Boxenbaum reports (1992)
[ Dependence on high-dose data ] "is a major problem in long-term toxicity studies which typically employ relatively high doses of toxicants (generally about 12.5 to 100% of the maximum tolerated dose per day in an attempt to assess risk at much lower doses. Although both Boxenbaum et al (1988) and Neafsey (1989-90) have recently addressed the problem of potentially overlooked longevity hormesis, the risk assessment community has failed to give it serious consideration. Previously, Smyth (1967) had taken notice of the fact that low doses of otherwise toxic substances can be beneficial. His reward - the epithet: Dr. Smyth and his fellow poisoners (Ottoboni 1984).
"Although the scientific community envisages itself as the epitome of institutionalized rationality (Newton-Smith 1981), many researchers have noted the high degree to which anomalous information is ignored if it disconfirms basic assumptions of established paradigms (Star 1985). Once a group agrees that a particular kind of reality is desirable, they develop a style that permits them to deal with observations solely on their own terms - and woe to the individual with different ideas (Becker 1968) (vide supra - Dr. Smyth).
"For most individuals, escape from these intellectual-scientific fetters is
difficult, for the obduracy of established perspective locks practitioners together in a
rigid framework of beliefs that is not readily overcome (Echberg and Hill 1989, Star
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